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Lava Flow Hazard Zones 

The below map shows lava-flow hazard zones for the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaiʻi:

  1. Kīlauea (active, last eruption: 2018)
  2. Mauna Loa (active, last eruption: 1984)
  3. Hualalai (active, last eruption: 1801)
  4. Mauna Kea (dormant)
  5. Kohala (extinct)

Volcano boundaries are shown as heavy, dark bands, reflecting the overlapping of lava flows from adjacent volcanoes along their common boundary. Hazard-zone boundaries are drawn as double lines because of the geologic uncertainty in their placement.

Volcano_Hazard Zones_36x36


Lava-flow hazard zones - Based on location of eruptive vents, past lava coverage, and topography

  • Zone 1: Includes summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, where vents have been repeatedly active in historical time.
  • Zone 2: Areas adjacent to and downslope of zone 1. In Zone 2, 15% to 25% of land has been covered by lava since 1800, and 25% to 75% has been covered within the past 750 years. Relative hazard within zone 2 decreases gradually as one moves away from zone 1.
  • Zone 3: Areas less hazardous than zone 2 because of greater distance from recently active vents and (or) because of topography. In Zone 3, 1% to 5% of land has been covered since 1800, and 15% to 75% has been covered within the past 750 years.
  • Zone 4: Includes all of Hualālai, where the frequency of eruptions is lower than that for Kīlauea or Mauna Loa. Lava coverage is proportionally smaller, about 5% since 1800, and less than 15% within the past 750 years.
  • Zone 5: Area on Kīlauea currently protected by topography.
  • Zone 6: Two areas on Mauna Loa, both protected by topography.
  • Zone 7: Younger part of domant volcano Mauna Kea. In this area, 25% of land was covered by lava in the past 10,000 years.
  • Zone 8: Remaining part of Mauna Kea. Only a few percent of this area has been covered by lava in the past 10,000 years. 
  • Zone 9: Kohala Volcano, which last erupted more than 60,000 years ago.